Tag Archives: Architecture Education

General Discription

Structure of the Curriculum

With the establishment of PPAr as an integrated part of Architectural Education, Curriculum 2013 is structured to include both Bachelor and Professional programs with optional termination at the end of the fourth year. Curriculum 2013 of Department of Architecture UII consists of Core Curriculum or National Curriculum as stipulated by IASA and Institutional Curriculum as formulated by the Department. This Curriculum is delivered in 33 compulsory courses plus 2 elective courses for the Bachelor Program (totalling 150 credits) and 4 compulsory courses plus 2 elective courses for the Professional Program (totalling 36 credits).

Table: Outline of the curriculum

Professional Architect Degree Program

(186 credits)

Bachelor Program

(150 credits)

Compulsory (33 courses, 142 credits)

Elective (2-4 courses, 8 credits)

Professional Program of Architect

(36 credits)

Compulsory (4 courses, 28 credits)

Elective (2 courses, 8 credits)

 

The distribution of courses within 5-year program is described in Table 4.6. Curriculum 2013 is structured with the following considerations:

  1. Architectural Design Studio (ADS) courses running consecutively from Semester 1 to Semester 10 serve as the backbone of the Curriculum. All of the design competences in requiring ability level are distributed in these courses.

  2. Other courses with architectural contents are distributed to support the competences achieved in ADS courses.

  3. Institutional Character Building and Liberal Arts courses are flexibly distributed on the first eight semesters.

Table: Distribution of Courses in Curriculum 2013

CLUSTER

Sem. 1

Sem. 2

Sem. 3

Sem. 4

Sem. 5

Sem. 6

Sem. 7

Sem. 8

Sem. 9

Sem. 10

INSTITUTIONAL CHARACTER & LIBERAL ARTS

Principles of Islam (2)

State Philosophy (2)

Islamic Leadership Studies (2)

Islamic Thought and Civilization (2)

Citizenship (2)

English (2)

Islamic Worship and Ethics (2)

Entrepre-neurship (2)

Mathe-matics (2)

Student Social Service (2)

INTEGRA-TED DESIGN

ADS I (4)

ADS II (4)

ADS III (6)

ADS IV (6)

ADS V (6)

ADS VI (8)

ADS VII (8)

Bachelor Final Project (8)

Prof. Studio I (8)

Prof. Studio 2 (8)

ARCH. COMMUNICA-TION

Arch. Drawing (4)

Building Information Modelling (4)

Writing Techniques (2)

Academic Writing (4)

Theory Electives (2)

Professional Electives (4)

Theory Electives (2)

THEORY & URBANISM

Introd. to Arch. (2)

Site Planning (4)

History & Theory of Arch. (4)

Design Thinking (4)

Introd. to Urban Design (4)

Professional Electives (4)

Indonesian Arch. (4)

Housing Studies (2)

Advanced Arch. Theory (8)

BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Sustainable Arch. (2)

Building Perform. Evaluation (2)

Building Materials & Construction (4)

Principles of Building Structure (4)

Building Structural System 1 (4)

Building Structural System 2 (2)

Integrated Building Engineering (4)

Building Infrastructure (2)

Thermal Environ. Control (2)

Arch. Lighting (2)

Environ. Acoustic (2)

ADVO-CACY & PRO-FESSION

Professional Practice (4)

Studio Electives (4)

Professional Ethics (4)

PRO-GRAM

BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE PROGRAM

PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM OF

ARCHITECT (PPAR)

CREDITS

PER SEM.

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

10

16

20

Architecture Education and Professional Practice in Indonesia

The Role of Architecture in the Society and Reconcile Conflict of Interests amongst Various Groups regarding the Spatial Environment

Understanding the role of architecture in society and reconcile the conflict of interests among various interest groups regarding the spatial environment is cultivated through several courses, including Informal Urbanism, Sustainable Environment, Introduction to Urban Design, and Low Cost Housing. The knowledge then tested in the Architectural Design Studio Courses which emphasise certain themes in the spatial environment issues such as Cultural Sensitivity (STUPA 5), Technological Advancement (STUPA 6), Urban Context (STUPA 7) and real projects in the Professional Studio 1 and 2.

Conflict reconciliation will also be cultivated once the professional program student actively involved in IAI as members. Forums in IAI are engaged with various architectural and spatial environment issues, which also include in conflict amongst parties in architectural practices. Hence, it is expected that knowledge and ability regarding the role of architecture in the society and reconcile conflict in the architectural education will be tested and challenged upon their completion and as member of professional institution (IAI).

Ethics and Professional Obligations to Respond Social and Environmental Issues in the level of Built Environment and Urban Design

Apart from the Professional Practice and Professional Ethics, the obligation to respond social and environmental issues in the level of built environment and urban planning is cultivated for the students through several compulsory and elective courses including Sustainable Architecture (2 credit/compulsory), Informal Urbanism (2 credits/compulsory), Introduction to Urban Design (4 credits/compulsory), and Low Cost Housing (4 credits/elective).

Sustainable Architecture aims to provide the students with understanding of ecological values and social acceptance in accordance with economic/technical feasibility during designing process. Through this course the student is well-equipped with the science and architecture based on sustainable development. Informal urbanism aims to give basic understanding, identifying issues and problems in Informal urbanism. Through this course the student is well-equipped with issues on social and urban problems and how to find solution and recommendation of concept for informal urbanism problem especially in the case of Indonesian cities.   

Introduction to Urban Design is a 4 credit compulsory course aims to introduce the students to urban design and development both in eastern and western world by giving knowledge on urban morphology, elements of urban design, urban problems, and concept of urban design. It is expected that the students are able to understand and analyse various urban problems in order to comply STUPA 7 course which aims to design in urban context. Other related course to respond social and environmental issue is Low Cost Housing. Low Cost Housing is a 4 credit elective course aims to give the students critical and creative thinking in looking for solution towards housing problems for low income groups. It is expected that through this course the students will have social sensitivity towards the low-income and marginalised groups.

The knowledge from these theoretical courses then will be re-addressed in various level of Architectural Design Studios. The students are challenged to show their ability to design architectural works based on their knowledge especially how to respond social and environmental issues in the level of built environment and urban design.

Professional Practice based on Public Interest and Good Citizenship

Professional practice based on public interest and good citizenship is formally cultivated through Community Service Program (KKN), a 3 credit of a compulsory university course. KKN is an intra-curricular subject within the form of community service activities conducted in group of students  from various multidisciplinary department or faculty. The aims of KKN are to bring the student: 1) to cultivate community knowledge, understanding, and social insight, 2) to be able to identify community problems, solving problems, decision making, and conducting and evaluating programs, 3) to be able to work in team, in honesty, in equality, and independence based on Islamic values.

In this course, the students will live in the society for more than a month (35 days, with some variations) guided by a lecturer (supervisor) and field assistants. During this period, together with the community the students conduct field observations, formulating work plan, disseminating plan to the community, implementing program, and reporting the program to the supervisor. Through this course, it is expected that the student will have the ability to work as a team with the community/public, understanding problems in the community, and try to solve it through programs. It is also expected that through KKN the student will be able to live as good Indonesian citizen so that upon their graduation the will also willing and able to share their expertise and knowledge to the broader public and society.

In addition, the cultivation of good citizenship is also done through the Association of Architecture Student (HMA MIMAR) which regularly organised various social activities including community service in Code River Valley (2016), environmental service in villages around UII Campus, and Guard Post Charity also around the campus area (2015).

Communication and Interaction with the Professional

Communication and interaction with the professional community is an important aspect recognized from the formulation stage of curriculum in the department of architecture UII. By design, the curriculum mandates and provides a wide range of opportunities for the students to be able to communicate and interact with the professional community, such as in direct (face to face) or indirect (e.g., studion simulation, videos, or as mentioned in the lectures).

In the last three years, the communication and interaction have been interwoven through various efforts, including: first, the professional architects invited as Guest Lecturers in variety of subjects (design studios and theoretical classes). Second, invite the professional architects as Exhibition Jury at the Final Project (end of Year 4) as part of the assessment criteria, especially by Arsitek Madya/Utama IAI. The assessment from external Jury is expected to be a media of interaction between the students, their architectural works, and the professionals in order to get input and showing the student’s excellence works during their studentship. The implication of this occasion is the familiarization of student’s work to the IAI members and vice versa, for them to get input and assessment from the world of profession.

Third, invite IAI lecturers for the Training Strata 1 – 6 to the department as part of the Professional Ethics subject. There are plenty opportunities for the students of PPAR to communicate and interact with the IAI professional lecturers about the world of architecture profession. Fourth, invite the IAI Initial Verification and Validation Team (TVVA) in the workshop of 13 Competence of IAI. In this occasion, the students presenting their works to be verified and validated by the IAI team. Fifth, IAI and LPJK tested the student of PPAR through Professional Architect Competence Test (Uji Kompetensi Arsitek Professional) as part of the assessment process towards Arsitek Muda IAI. Sixth, in the PPAR Graduation Ceremony three parties (Dept. of Architecture UII-IAI-LPJK) present and give speeches towards the world of Architecture Profession.

Raising Awareness of the Importance and Necessity of Continuing Professional Education

As early as first semester the awareness on the necessity of architectural education has started to be given to the new students. At the first meeting with the new students head of department and academic supervisors specifically highlight the importance of professional education (5 years) to be completed by the students. Other efforts to raise awareness in this matter are providing opportunities for students in year 1 – 4 to sit in professional program (PPAR) courses and before students take Final Project subject (end of Year 4) there is a special presentation on the importance of professional practice and professional program. These efforts are expected to further increase their interest to continue their education in the PPAR.  

The Importance of Roles and Responsibilities of Related Disciplines in the Practice

The roles and responsibilities of related disciplines in architectural practices is important to be addressed and cultivated amongst the student from the early stages of their study. The curriculum implemented in the department of Architecture UII drives the multi disciplinary platform for the students to work with others in related disciplines of architecture. Architectural Studio 6 (STUPA 6) is specifically designed to give the opportunity for the  students to engage with various disciplines including Economist, Mechanical and Electrical Engineer (MEE), Structural Engineer (Civil Engineering), and Environmental Engineer. The mechanism is by inviting these experts as Guest Lecturers at the early stage of STUPA 6, and continued after mid-term times through supervision sessions so that the students can directly having a one to one discussions and consultation regarding their designs. The mechanism above is not only provide knowledge on the roles and responsibility of related disciplines for the students but also giving chances for the students to communicate and work with people from various related disciplines in architectural practices.

In terms of content, theoretical courses such as Introduction to Urban Design, Informal Urbanism, Sustainable Architecture, and Housing Studies also provide important knowledge regarding the roles and responsibilities of related disciplines in the practices.  These includes Urban Designers, Environmental Engineer, Lawyer, Economist and etc. to be part of the architect’s team work whenever conducting projects in various context (rural, urban) and various content (feasibility study, schematic design, DED, and etc.). Hence, through STUPA 6 and related theoretical courses it is expected that the students is fully aware, understand, and able to work with people from various disciplines, knowing their roles and responsibilities so that the architectural works will be accomplished in best way.  

Capabilities to Coordinate Clients, Public and Private Enterprises and to Reconcile Conflict  

The capabilities to coordinate clients, public and private enterprises and to reconcile conflict is well-cultivated through several courses including Professional Practice, Professional Studio 1 (PPAR). In the Professional Practice, the students understand the pattern of working relationship between client (both private and public), architect, and constructor and how to reconcile whenever conflict is occurred based on IAI standard of operation.  

Professional Studio 1 conducted by placed the student in an Architectural Firm for 16 weeks and fully supervised by lecturer and principal architect of related firm. In this studio the students will be challenged by real projects in which engaged with various parties, including land-owner, project-owner, government, and even community in the surroundings site. The capability to reconcile conflict will be sharpened in this process, so that the students are expected to have strong capabilities on real conflicts occurs in their future architectural projects.

Acquisition and Cultivation of Professional Ethics and Obligations for Faithful and Devoted Practice

Architecture Professional Practice and Professional Ethics (see sub-section 3.3.6) is also aim to cultivate faithful and devoted practices. In specific UII open a university course in Islamic Leadership Study intended to cultivate basic leadership principles both in Islamic and Western Perspective, to critically understand the ideal character of a leader based on Islamic value, to be able to apply skill and strategy of a leader, and apply the ideal national leadership in Indonesia both in formal or informal leadership.  It is hoped that through these courses the students will have a strong understanding of ethics, having a good responsibility and professional obligations for faithful and devoted practices to client, society, and the environment.

Architecture Education in Indonesia

Architectural Education, Qualification to Practice, and the Registration System

History of Architectural Education in Indonesia

The architectural education in Indonesia was established in 1950 with the opening of ‘Bouwkundige Afdeeling’ (Building Section) at the Fakulteit Teknik (Faculty of Engineering) Universitas Indonesia in Bandung (ITB). The educational program is implemented to produce Insinyur Arsitek (Architecture Engineer) with curriculum adopted from the TU Delft, The Netherlands (as most of the lecturers were TU Delft alumni). In 1958, for the first time this department of architecture produced its graduates.

In the 1960s some department of architecture were established in several cities of Indonesia, including Parahyangan Catholic University, Bandung (1960), Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (1962), Diponegoro University, Semarang (1962), Tarumanegara University, Jakarta (1962), Indonesian Christian University, Jakarta (1962), Hasanuddin University, Makassar (1963), University of Pancasila, Jakarta (1963), University of Indonesia, Jakarta (1965), Udayana University, Bali (1965), and Surabaya Institute of Technology (1965). The establishment of several department of architecture in Indonesia was followed by other universities in Indonesia in the next decades.

In this era, the primary aim of the architectural education in Indonesia is to produce professional architects with minimum of five years duration. The students were prepared to have a strong knowledge on architectural theory, architectural design skills (studio), and internship. At the end of their studies, the students were tested through simulation project before commenced as an engineer.  

Major changes of architectural education in Indonesia in 1996 have marked by the changes of 160 credits for undergraduate program to 144 credits (5 years to 4 years program) and the first architectural education accreditation is also conducted by the National Accreditation Board in this year. As a consequence, the Architecture Engineer award (Ir.) turned into Bachelor of Engineering (ST) aimed to produce scholars that can be prepared to be a professional.

In 2015, PDDIKTI recorded 159 department of architecture all over Indonesia in undergraduate level, 16 master level, and 7 in Ph.D level of education. This number is the largest within ASEAN countries (Philippines: 83; Vietnam: 22; and Thailand: 20 institutions).

Architectural Education and National Policy

The architectural education in Indonesia is experiencing changes that demands a more dynamic learning model, multidiscipline, and more focused on producing the graduates to meet the standard of competence in national and international level. In addition the graduates produced are also expected to response the contemporary issues such as the environmental sustainability, socio-cultural, and community development to prepare them in competing with foreign architects.

In 2007 the Indonesian government signed the agreement on ASEAN Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) for architectural services. In order to fulfill the requirement as ASEAN Architect, the architecture graduates require taking a minimum 5 years of architectural education as requested by the UIA. At the regional level the challenge of architecture education and profession is also marked by the ASEAN Free Trade Year 2015. The free trade is allowing the applicable standard of practice for Architect ASEAN member countries and allowing architects to practice in countries within the ASEAN members.            

In fact, the undergraduate level of architectural education in Indonesia is organized within 4 years allowing one year gap with the UIA requirement. In 2009, the Indonesian Institute of Architects (IAI) and the Association of Architectural Higher Education in Indonesia (APTARI) have set a Professional Architecture Education Program/PPAR (1 year continuation and/or part of 2 years of Master Degree Program) as an official set towards a professional architecture education in Indonesia.

Amongst the 159 department of architecture in Indonesia, only 14 are recorded as the organizer of PPAR with one of the (University of Indonesia) is registered in the Ministry of Higher Education. This can be a challenge for the architectural education in Indonesia. Furthermore, Indonesia needs to formulate the general competence as reference for curriculum standard in conducting the architectural education in Indonesia.

Hence, in relation with the various challenges and opportunities there is a need of program revitalization of architectural education in Indonesia to deal with the dynamic changes and the challenges of architectural profession at the global, regional, and national levels. In 2015 IAI and APTARI implement the revitalization program of architectural education in order to improve the quality of higher architectural education in Indonesia. This revitalization program is included to formulate Program Learning Outcome, Curriculum, and Professional Architecture Education Standard.

The Qualification to Practice and Registration of IAI

Currently, the Indonesian Association of School of Architecture (APTARI) and IAI (with some contributions from PPAR-UII) formulates a guideline serving as mutual platform between IAI and Schools of Architecture in conducting professional education and granting professional certification. In this scheme, in addition to the granting of License Architect, the graduates will be granted a certificate of “Arsitek Muda” (First Level Architect) by IAI (see figure 1). In this qualification, upon the completion of PPAR the student will be automatically granted a certificate of Arsitek Muda.

Arsitek Muda Certificate is a limited certificate in the sense that the holder may only perform professional architectural design of up to three stories building and the certificate valid for only two years. Such a certificate will cease automatically if holder does not proceed to the full time internship within 2 years. As seen in Figure 1, in order to get a full certificate, a graduate of PPAR requires 2 years of internship experience in addition to passing the competency examination.

Figure 1. The proposed stages of professional education of architect based on the agreement between IAI and APTARI in 2015

The full certificate consists of two types, namely Arsitek Madya (Second Level Architect) and Arsitek Utama (Third Level Architect), each of these full certificates valid for three years. By default, an architect in Indonesia can legally practice if the holder meets three conditions as follows:

1.   The architect is a valid member of IAI – a membership card is issued by IAI as a proof of validity

2.   The architect has one of the three types of the above-mentioned certificates, i.e., first level, second level, or third level

3.    The architect holds the SIBP (Surat Ijin Bekerja Perencana – literally translated as “Work Permit for Design Consultancy”), which is issued by the municipal government. However, SIBP is required only within a certain municipality such as Jakarta. In most cases only the conditions number 1 and 2 are required.

Architecture Education UII

Department of Architecture Program and UII Future Goal

The five year program of department of architecture is established in line with the vision and mission of UII. As mentioned in the previous section, the first vision of UII is towards UII as ‘a mercy to the world’. It has translated in the vision of the department of architecture regarding its commitment and sensitivity in creating a sustainable environment, with consideration and concern for marginal groups. The second vision of UII to become an internationally recognized university is translated in the vision of the department to become the best top three of similar architecture program in Indonesia, as ranked by the National Accreditation Board and to produce global qualified graduates (international reputation) but at the same time having a strong Indonesia’s best character.

Faculty Member and Student Recruitment Criteria

The selection of faculty member is prepared through open recruitment process published through university website and national mass media. The general criteria are the academic qualification, research interest, teaching specialist, English (TOEFL), and Islamic knowledge. The academic requirement is hold a Master Degree, but Doctoral Degree (Ph.D) is preferable. Research interest is necessary to be selected to meet the need of the curriculum that is applied in order to achieve expertise and excellence to such field of knowledge. Teaching specialist is required to test the candidate in terms of pedagogic ability and interest in teaching as a profession. English proficiency showed by such standard for example TOEFL is utilized to meet the criteria for English as standard to achieve global communication and achievement. Last but not least is Islamic knowledge, as an Islamic based values university, UII needs to make sure that the human resources in this case academic staff have the basic ability to the realize the vision of UII as mercy to the world (rahmatan lil alamin).

Currently, the faculty member of the Department of Architecture UII consist of thirty-three full-time faculty members, with eight of them are Ph.D holders, four Ph.D candidates, and the rest are master degree holders.  Most of the faculty members are graduates from national and international reputable universities, including University of Newcastle, University of York, University of Nottingham, University of Melbourne, University of New South Wales, University of South Victoria, Bauhaus University, Cottbus University, Wismar University of Technology Business and Design Germany, Cologne University of Applied Sciences Germany, Anhalt University of Applied Science, McGill University Canada, ITC Netherlands, Cyprus University, Fatih Mehmet University Turkey, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Universitas Gadjah Mada, so on and so forth. Sixth of them are full-professional architect accredited by the Indonesian Institutes of Architects (IAI).

The selection criteria for the students are generally following the criteria defined in the university level, i.e., Paper Based Test (PBT), Computer Based Test (CBT), and GPA (Grade Point Average) based Recruitment (PSB) (for more detail see sub-section 4.3 on Student Information).

Development of Democratic Decision Making Process in the University

Over the last decade UII has introduced a more democratic and collective atmosphere of decision making which involving stakeholders including the students, for example on the selection of Rector and his/her deputies. The student’s league is also elected democratically and independently (without intrusion from the university) by the students both at the university, faculty, and department level.

The Provision of Access of Vital Information for the Students

UII has developed access of vital information for the students through IT Infrastructure and facilities. Information system through IT for academic information (SIMAK) can be assessed through internet not only for the students, but also for lecturers, and parents. Computers are available in many areas in the campus through intranet and internet to facilitate the students in accessing their record and other academic information as well as scientific resource (journal database). Recently Social Media is also intensively used by the department of architecture to disseminate important information such as through Facebook and Twitters.  Library catalogue search can be done through online (SIMPUS) inside the library across UII campus (refer to section 4.6 on Information Resources for details).  

Provision of Opportunities to Participate in Domestic and International Practice

The department of architecture provides opportunities for the student to participate in domestic and international practice through Internship Program. Student competition such as PKM (Student Creativity Program) in national level is an annual program organized by the Ministry of Higher Education to encourage students to do research, developing models, implement their knowledge for the community, and publish their ideas or research findings in a journal/seminar paper. Other student competition, such as design competition is regularly published in the department to encourage the students to contend their design in national and international level.  

Collaborative program with foreign institutions has initiated in the department including research collaboration, summer and winter program, student exchange, and etc. for more than a decade. Recently some collaborative program with other national and international institutions, including Summer Camp on Bamboo and Parametric Design ITB, Summer School and Winter School with EMU, Turkey, and Workshop on Dome Architecture in Japan.

UII provides environment that inspires and encourage creativity and self-confidence for the students through the provision of art spaces, galleries, university museum, Warung Prancis (French Information Booth – in collaboration with the Embassy of France), and open theatre. UniShop is built to also give the opportunity for the students to open their Start Up business to develop the self-promotion for the students through entrepreneurship.